Understanding Crowdfunding: Why All The Confusion?

Understanding Crowdfunding: Why All The Confusion?

Crowdfunding has emerged as a key strategy for startups, small businesses, and real estate ventures looking to raise capital. Despite its growing popularity, confusion often surrounds the different types of crowdfunding and the legalities involved. This comprehensive blog seeks to clarify the types of crowdfunding, delve into the specific SEC regulations that govern them, and provide a thorough understanding of what constitutes an accredited investor.

What Is Crowdfunding? 

Crowdfunding is a method of raising capital through the collective effort of friends, family, customers, and individual investors, primarily online via social media, email campaigns, websites, and dedicated crowdfunding platforms. This approach leverages large pools of individuals, tapping into their networks for greater reach and exposure.

Types Of Crowdfunding

1. Reward-Based Crowdfunding

This is perhaps the most well-known type of crowdfunding, where backers contribute to a project in exchange for a “reward,” which may range from the product itself to a public acknowledgment. Popular platforms for reward-based crowdfunding include Kickstarter and Indiegogo.

2. Donation-Based Crowdfunding

This type is often used for charitable causes, where there is no expected compensation to the donors; it’s purely altruistic. GoFundMe is a prime example of a platform facilitating donation-based crowdfunding.

3. Equity Crowdfunding

This type of crowdfunding covers all aspects of investor-based crowdfunding, whether it involves the issuance of equity, debt, or even preferred securities. Generally, investors receive some kind of stake in the compan in exchange for their investment. This type is particularly significant because it involves the sale of securities and is subject to stringent regulations.

Why The Confusion?

The confusion around crowdfunding largely stems from the generalized use of the term “crowdfunding” itself. It can mean different things to different people, and there can even be overlapping characteristics between the different types and the regulatory nuances involved. The overlap between the different types of crowdfunding and their regulatory requirements often leads to confusion. The distinctions between what constitutes a reward versus a financial return can blur, creating legal ambiguities.

Key SEC Regulations On Crowdfunding 

Regulation Crowdfunding (Reg CF)

This regulation allows companies to raise up to $5 million per year from both accredited and non-accredited investors through SEC-registered crowdfunding portals. This democratizes investment in early-stage ventures but requires detailed disclosures and financial reporting.

Regulation A+ (Reg A+)

This regulation facilitates offerings up to $75 million through two tiers. Tier 1 allows up to $20 million in 12 months, while Tier 2 allows up to $75 million, appealing to companies that are larger than typical crowdfunding candidates but not ready to become fully reporting public companies. Both accredited and non-accredited investors can participate, but an offering circular approved by the SEC is required.

Regulation D (Reg D)

This regulation provides exemptions for private placements. Most notably, Rule 506(c) of Reg D allows raising unlimited funds from accredited investors, defined as individuals with an income exceeding $200,000 annually, or $300,000 jointly with a spouse, over the last two years, or a net worth of $1 million, excluding the value of their primary residence.

Legal Perspectives And Compliance

Navigating the complexities of these regulations is crucial. Each type of crowdfunding and regulation comes with its own set of rules and requirements.

– Reg CF demands transparency with the public and the SEC, requiring regular updates on business operations and financial health.

– Reg A+ offers a middle ground, with more substantial disclosure than Reg D but less than a traditional public offering.

– Reg D focuses primarily on accredited investors and requires less public disclosure, making it a preferred route for many startups and private companies seeking to avoid the scrutiny of a public offering.

Detailed Insights Into Crowdfunding Regulations: Understanding Reg CF, Reg A+, And Reg D

Crowdfunding has evolved into a critical strategy for raising capital, particularly suited to startups, small businesses, and real estate ventures. With various types of crowdfunding available, understanding the legal framework that governs each type is vital for compliance and success.

Regulation Crowdfunding (Reg CF)

Regulation Crowdfunding allows eligible companies to raise up to $5 million per year from individual investors through SEC-registered crowdfunding platforms. This regulation was enacted under Title III of the JOBS Act to facilitate smaller companies in raising capital through equity crowdfunding. One of the key features of Reg CF is that it opens investment opportunities to both accredited and non-accredited investors, democratizing access to early-stage investments.

Companies looking to use Reg CF must file their offering with the SEC, provide detailed disclosures about their business, and adhere to financial reporting requirements. This includes information about the business model, financial condition, ownership, and potential risks. Investors have limits on the amount they can invest via crowdfunding, based on their income and net worth.

Regulation A+ (Reg A+)

Regulation A+ is an exemption from registration for public offerings. Reg A+ has two tiers: Tier 1, for offerings of up to $20 million in a 12-month period, and Tier 2, for offerings up to $75 million. This regulation is particularly useful for companies that are too large for crowdfunding but not yet ready to become a fully reporting public company.

Tier 2 offerings have become more popular due to preemption of state securities law registration and qualification requirements, as well as allowing companies to raise money from both accredited and non-accredited investors. Companies using Reg A+ must provide an offering circular approved by the SEC, which includes detailed information about the company, its business operations, financial condition, and the terms of the offering.

Regulation D (Reg D)

Regulation D offers a set of rules— including Rules 506(b) and 506(c)— that provide exemptions from the standard SEC registration. Most private companies raising investment capital rely on Rule 506(c) of Reg D, which does not limit the amount of money that can be raised. The critical aspect of Rule 506(c) is its focus on accredited investors.

Accredited Investor Definition:

An accredited investor is an individual or a business entity that is allowed to invest in certain types of private placement capital raises. They are considered capable of managing the investment risk associated with these securities. Individuals are generally considered accredited investors if they have a net income exceeding $200,000 annually, or $300,000 jointly with a spouse, over the last two years, or a net worth of $1 million, either individually or jointly with a spouse, excluding the value of their primary residence.


The choice between Reg CF, Reg A+, and Reg D will depend on various factors, including the amount of capital a company aims to raise, its investor base, and how much regulatory compliance the company is prepared to undertake. For entities exploring crowdfunding as a means of raising capital, understanding the nuances of these regulations is crucial.

It is recommended that companies consult with legal professionals experienced in securities law to navigate these regulations effectively. This ensures not only compliance but also enhances the strategic approach to raising capital, minimizing risks, and maximizing potential benefits. Misunderstanding these regulations can lead to serious legal and financial repercussions. Therefore, consulting with legal experts who specialize in securities law is essential for any company considering crowdfunding as a capital-raising strategy.

About the Firm: PPM LAWYERS specializes in legal services aimed at drafting private placement memorandums and advising clients raising capital for real estate syndications, real estate funds, investment funds, and startup ventures. Our expertise in securities law ensures that your crowdfunding efforts are built on a solid legal foundation, guiding you through the complexities of regulations and helping you achieve your funding objectives efficiently and ethically.

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